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2019年1月17日雅思考试阅读回忆(版本合集!)

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不知上周四的雅思考试大家战绩怎么样呢?小编为大家整理了有关本场考试的真题回忆内容,一起来看看都考到哪些题目吧!以下是本场考试阅读回忆内容。

不知上周四的雅思考试大家战绩怎么样呢?小编为大家整理了有关本场考试的真题回忆内容,一起来看看都考到哪些题目吧!以下是本场考试阅读回忆内容。


雅思阅读回忆.jpg


>>>免费下载2019年1月17日雅思考试真题回忆汇总(版本合集!).pdf

 

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Passage 1


文章题材:说明文(自然科普)


文章题目:遗忘的森林


文章难度:★★


文章内容:文章介绍了长叶松森林在美国面临着即将消失的严峻形势,林火对长叶松林的重要作用,以及研究人员如何利用林火和提高人们对其重要性的认识来保护长叶松森林。


题型及数量:9填空题+4判断题

题目及答案:

1. Nests

2. Tortoises

3. Oaks

4. Native Americans

5. prescribed burns

6. shrubs

7. soil

8. ants

9. eggs

10. TRUE

11. FALSE

12. NOT GIVEN

13. TRUE


可参考真题:C5T4P2:Flawed Beauty: the problem with toughened glass


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考试原文:

The Forgotten Forest被遗忘的森林


Found only in the Deep South of America, long leaf pine woodlands have dwindled to about 3 percent of their former range, but new efforts are under way to restore them.

长叶松林只在美国南部的深处发现,现在已经减少到原来的3%,但新的努力正在进行中,以恢复它们。


THE BEAUTY AND THE BIODIVERSITY of the longleaf pine forest are well-kept secrets, even in its native South. Yet it is among the richest ecosystems in North America, rivaling tall grass prairies and the ancient forests of the Pacific Northwest in the number of species it shelters. And like those two other disappearing wildlife habitats, longleaf is also critically endangered.

长叶松林的美丽和生物多样性一直是保存完好的秘密,即使在它的原产地南方也是如此。然而,它是北美最丰富的生态系统之一,在物种数量上可与太平洋西北部的大草原和古老森林相媲美。和其他两个正在消失的野生动物栖息地一样,长叶也是极度濒危物种。


In longleaf pine forests, trees grow widely scattered, creating an open, park like environment, more like a savanna than a forest. The trees are not so dense as to block the sun. This openness creates a forest floor that is among the most diverse in the world, where plants such as many-flowered grass pinks, trumpet pitcher plants, Venus flytraps, lavender ladies and pineland bog-buttons grow. As many as 50 different species of wild flowers, shrubs, grasses and ferns have been cataloged in just a single square meter.

在长叶松林中,树木生长广泛分散,创造了一个开放的、类似公园的环境,更像是热带稀树草原而不是森林。树的密度没有大到挡住太阳。这种开放创造了一个世界上最多样化的森林地面,植物如多花的草粉,喇叭猪笼草,维纳斯捕蝇草,薰衣草女士和松原沼泽钮扣生长。仅在一平方米的土地上就记录了多达50种不同种类的野花、灌木、草和蕨类植物。


Once, nearly 92 million acres of longleaf forest flourished from Virginia to Texas, the only place in the world where it is found. By the turn of the 21st century, however, virtually all of it had been logged, paved or farmed into oblivion. Only about 3 percent of the original range still supports longleaf forest, and only about 10,000 acres of that is uncut old-growth-the rest is forest that has regrown after cutting. An estimated 100,000 of those acres are still vanishing every year. However, a quiet movement to reverse this trend is rippling across the region. Governments, private or ganisations (including NWF) and individual conservationists are looking for ways to protect and preserve the remaining longleaf and to plant new forests for future generations.

曾经,从弗吉尼亚到德克萨斯州,将近9200万英亩的长叶林曾经繁茂生长,这是世界上唯一发现这种植物的地方。然而,到了21世纪初,几乎所有的森林都被砍伐、铺砌或耕种而被遗忘。只有约3%的原始森林仍然保持着长叶林的生长,其中只有约1万英亩是原始森林,其余的是砍伐后重新生长的森林。据估计,每年仍有10万英亩的土地在消失。然而,一场旨在逆转这一趋势的平静运动正在该地区掀起波澜。政府、私人或组织(包括NWF)和个人自然资源保护者正在寻找保护和保护剩余长叶植物的方法,并为后代种植新的森林。


Figuring out how to bring back the piney woods also will allow biologists to help the plants and animals that depend on this habitat. Nearly two-thirds of the declining, threatened or endangered species in the southeastern United States are associated with longleaf. The outright destruction of longleaf is only part of their story, says Mark Danaher, the biologist for South Carolina’s Francis Marion National Forest. He says the demise of these animals and plants also is tied to a lack of fire, which once swept through the southern forests on a regular basis.” Fire is absolutely critical for this ecosystem and for the species that depend on it,” says Danaher.

弄清楚如何恢复松树林也将使生物学家能够帮助依赖这一栖息地的动植物。在美国东南部正在减少的、受到威胁的或濒危的物种中,近三分之二与长叶植物有关。南卡罗莱纳弗朗西斯马里恩国家森林的生物学家马克·达纳赫说,对长叶树木的彻底破坏只是他们故事的一部分。他说,这些动植物的死亡还与缺乏火灾有关。火灾曾经定期横扫南部森林。Danaher说:“对于这个生态系统和依赖它的物种来说,火绝对是至关重要的。”


Name just about any species that occurs in longleaf and you can find a connection to fire. Bach-man’s sparrow is a secretive bird with a beautiful song that echoes across the longleaf flat woods. It tucks its nest on the ground beneath clumps of wiregrass and little bluestem in the open under story, But once fire has been absent for several years, and a tangle of shrubs starts to grow, the sparrows disappear. Gopher tortoises, the only native land tortoises east of the Mississippi, are also abundant in longleaf. A keystone species for these forests, its burrows provide homes and safety to more than 300 species of vertebrates and invertebrates ranging from eastern diamondback rattlesnakes to gopher frogs, If fire is suppressed, however, the tortoises are choked out.” If we lose fire,” says Bob Mitchell, an ecologist at the Jones Center, ”we lose wildlife.”

说出几乎所有长叶植物的名字,你就能发现它们和火有关。巴赫曼的麻雀是一种神秘的鸟,有着美妙的歌声,回荡在长叶平坦的树林中。它把巢埋在地上,埋在一丛丛的铁丝草和矮树下的小青石下面,但是一旦火消失了好几年,一丛灌木开始生长,麻雀就消失了。地鼠陆龟是密西西比河东部唯一的本土陆龟,长叶陆龟也很丰富。作为这些森林的关键物种,它的洞穴为300多种脊椎动物和无脊椎动物提供了家园和安全,从东部菱形背响尾蛇到地鼠蛙,但如果火被扑灭,乌龟就会窒息而死。“如果我们失去了火,”Jones中心的生态学家Bob Mitchell说,“我们就失去了野生动物。”


Without fire, we also lose longleaf. Fire knocks back the oaks and other woods that can grow up to overwhelm longleaf forests. They are fire forests,” Mitchell says: They evolved in the lightning capital of the eastern United States.” And it wasn’t only lightning strikes that set the forest aflame.” Native Americans also lit fires to keep the forest open,” Mitchell says.” So did the early pioneers. They helped create the longleaf pine forests that we know today.”

没有火,我们也失去了长叶。大火将橡树和其他可以生长的森林夷为平地。它们是火森林,”米切尔说:“它们是在美国东部闪电之都进化而来的。不仅是闪电把森林点燃了。米切尔说:“印第安人还生火来保持森林的开放。早期的拓荒者也是如此。他们帮助创造了我们今天所知道的长叶松林。


Fire also changes how nutrients flow throughout longleaf ecosystems, in ways we are just beginning to understand. For example, researchers have discovered that frequent fires provide extra calcium, which is critical for egg production, to endangered red-cockaded woodpeckers. Frances James, a retired avian ecologist from Florida State University, has studied these small black-and-white birds for more than two decades in Florida’s sprawling Apalachicola National Forest. When she realised female woodpeckers laid larger clutches in the first breeding season after their territories were burned, she and her colleagues went searching for answers.” We learned calcium is stashed away in woody shrubs when the forest is not burned,” James says. “But when there is a fire, a pulse of calcium moves down into the soil and up into the long leaf.” Eventually, this calcium makes its way up the food chain to a tree-dwelling species of ant, which is the red-cockaded’s favorite food. The result: more calcium for the birds, which leads to more eggs, more young and more woodpeckers.

火还改变了营养物质在长叶生态系统中的流动方式,这种方式我们才刚刚开始了解。例如,研究人员发现,频繁的火灾为濒危的红冠啄木鸟提供了额外的钙,而钙对产蛋至关重要。弗朗西斯·詹姆斯(Frances James)是佛罗里达州立大学(Florida State University)退休的鸟类生态学家,20多年来,她一直在佛罗里达州广阔的阿巴拉契科拉国家森林(Apalachicola National Forest)研究这种黑白相间的小型鸟类。当她意识到雌性啄木鸟在它们的领地被烧毁后的第一个繁殖期产下了更大的爪子时,她和同事们开始寻找答案。“我们了解到,当森林没有被烧毁时,钙会被储存在木本灌木中,”詹姆斯说。“但当发生火灾时,一股钙脉冲向下进入土壤,向上进入长叶。”最终,这些钙通过食物链进入一种栖息在树上的蚂蚁,这是红冠蚂蚁最喜欢的食物。结果是:鸟类得到了更多的钙,这就导致了更多的鸟蛋、更多的幼鸟和更多的啄木鸟。


Today, fire is used as a vital management tool for preserving both longleaf and its wildlife. Most of these fires are prescribed burns, deliberately set with a drip torch. Although the public often opposes any type of fire-and the smoke that goes with it-these frequent, low-intensity burns reduce the risk of catastrophic conflagrations.” Forests are going to burn,” says Amadou Diop, NWF’s southern forests restoration manager.” It’s just a question of when. With prescribed burns, we can pick the time and the place.”

今天,火被用来作为一种重要的管理工具来保护长叶和它的野生动物。这些火大多数是规定的燃烧,故意用滴管点燃。尽管公众经常反对任何类型的火灾,以及伴随火灾而来的烟雾,但这些频繁的、低强度的火灾减少了灾难性火灾的风险。“森林将被烧毁,”NWF南方森林恢复经理Amadou Diop说。“这只是时间问题。”有了规定的烧伤,我们可以选择时间和地点。


Diop is spearheading a new NWF effort to restore longleaf.” It’s a species we need to go back to, he says. Educating landowners about the advantages of growing longleaf is part of the program, he adds, which will soon be under way in nine southern states.” Right now, most longleaf is on public land,” says Jerry McCollum, president of the Georgia Wildlife Federation.” Private land is where we need to work,” he adds, pointing out that more than 90 percent of the acreage within the historic range of longleaf falls under this category.

Diop是NWF恢复longleaf的先锋。他说:“这是一个我们需要回归的物种。他补充说,教育土地所有者种植长叶植物的好处是该项目的一部分,该项目很快将在美国南部的9个州实施。“现在,大部分的长叶是在公共土地上,”乔治亚野生动物联合会主席Jerry McCollum说。“我们需要在私人土地上工作,”他补充说。他指出,在历史悠久的朗利夫地区,90%以上的土地都属于这一类。


Interest among private landowners is growing throughout the South, but restoring longleaf is not an easy task. The herbaceous layer-the understory of wiregrasses and other plants-also needs to be re-created. In areas where the land has not been chewed up by farming, but con-verted to loblolly or slash pine plantations, the seed bank of the longleaf forest usually remains viable beneath the soil. In time, this original vegetation can be coaxed back. Where agriculture has destroyed the seeds, however, wiregrass must be replanted. Right now, the expense is prohibitive, but researchers are searching for low-cost solutions.

在整个南方,私人土地所有者的兴趣正在增长,但恢复longleaf并非易事。草本层——铁丝草和其他植物的下层——也需要重建。在那些土地没有被耕种所侵蚀,而是变成了长叶林或松林的地区,长叶林的种子库通常在土壤下仍能存活。随着时间的推移,这些原始植被可以被诱导回去。然而,在农业破坏了种子的地方,必须重新种植铁丝草。目前,费用高昂,但研究人员正在寻找低成本的解决方案。


Bringing back longleaf is not for the short-sighted, however. Few of us will be alive when the pines being planted today become mature forests in 70 to 80 years. But that is not stopping longleaf enthusiasts,” Today, it’s getting hard to find longleaf seedlings to buy,” one of the private landowners says.” Everyone wants them. Longleaf is in a resurgence.”

然而,长叶公司的回归并不适合目光短浅的人。当今天种植的松树在70到80年后变成成熟的森林时,我们当中很少有人还活着。但这并没有阻止长叶爱好者,“今天,很难找到长叶幼苗来购买,”一位私人土地所有者说。“每个人都想要。”Longleaf正在复苏。


Passage 2


文章题材:说明文


文章题目:计算方式


文章难度:★★


文章内容:待补充


题型及数量:待补充


题目及答案:待补充


可参考真题:C12T5P3:What’s the purpose of gaining knowledge?


Passage 3


文章题材:说明文(社科研究)


文章题目:What do babies know?(婴儿知道什么?)


文章难度:★★★


文章内容:本文讨论了儿童认知的问题,作者论述了一系列研究来讨论儿童认知。


题型及数量:6判断题+5配对题+3选择题

题目及答案:

27. TRUE

28. NOT GIVEN

29. FALSE

30. NOT GIVEN

31. TRUE

32. FALSE

33. B

34. E

35. A

36. D

37. C

38. B

39. A

40. D


可参考真题:C10T2P2:Gifted children and learning


考试原文:

What Do Babies Know? 婴儿知道什么?


A As Daniel Haworth is settled into a high chair and wheeled behind a black screen, a sudden look of worry furrows his 9-month-old brow. His dark blue eyes dart left and right in search of the familiar reassurance of his mother's face. She calls his name and makes soothing noises, but Daniel senses something unusual is happening. He sucks his fingers for comfort, but, finding no solace, his month crumples, his body stiffens, and he lets rip an almighty shriek of distress. This is the usual expression when babies are left alone or abandoned. Mom picks him up, reassures him, and two minutes later, a chortling and alert Daniel returns to the darkened booth behind the screen and submits himself to baby lab, a unit set up in 2005 at the University of Manchester in northwest England to investigate how babies think.

当丹尼尔·霍沃斯(Daniel Haworth)坐在一张高椅子上,在黑色屏幕后面转动时,他9个月大的额头上突然出现了担忧的表情。他那双深蓝色的眼睛左顾右盼,想从他母亲的脸上找到熟悉的安慰。她叫着丹尼尔的名字,发出令人宽慰的声音,但丹尼尔感觉有些不寻常的事情正在发生。他吮吸自己的手指寻求安慰,但找不到安慰,他的月垮了,他的身体僵硬,他发出了一声巨大的痛苦的尖叫。这是婴儿被单独留下或被遗弃时的常用表达。妈妈抱起丹尼尔,安慰他。两分钟后,丹尼尔咯咯地笑着,警觉地回到屏幕后面黑暗的展台,把自己交给婴儿实验室(baby lab)。


B Watching infants piece life together, seeing their senses, emotions and motor skills take shape, is a source of mystery and endless fascination-at least to parents and developmental psychologist. We can decode their signals of distress or read a million messages into their first smile. But how much do we really know about what's going on behind those wide, innocent eyes? How much of their understanding of and response to the world comes preloaded at birth? How much is built from scratch by experience? Such are the questions being explored at baby lab. Though the facility is just 18 months old and has tested only 100 infants, it's already challenging current thinking on what babies know and how they come to know it.

看着婴儿拼凑生活,看着他们的感觉、情感和运动技能成形,是一种神秘和无尽的魅力的源泉——至少对父母和发展心理学家来说是这样。我们可以解读他们的悲伤信号,或者从他们的第一个微笑中读出上百万条信息。但我们对那双天真的大眼睛背后究竟发生了什么究竟了解多少呢?他们对世界的理解和反应,有多少是与生俱来的?有多少是由经验白手起家的?这些都是婴儿实验室正在探索的问题。尽管该实验室只有18个月大,只对100名婴儿进行了测试,但它已经对目前关于婴儿知道什么以及他们是如何知道这些的想法提出了挑战。


C Daniel is now engrossed in watching video clips of a red toy train on a circular track. The train disappears into a tunnel and emerges on the other side. A hidden device above the screen is tracking Daniel's eyes as they follow the train and measuring the diametre of his pupils 50 times a second. As the child gets bored-or ”habituated”, as psychologists call the process-his attention level steadily drops. But it picks up a little whenever some novelty is introduced. The train might be green, or it might be blue. And sometimes an impossible thing happens-the train goes into the tunnel one color and comes out another.

丹尼尔现在正全神贯注地观看圆形轨道上一列红色玩具火车的视频片段。火车消失在隧道的另一边。屏幕上方的一个隐藏装置正在追踪丹尼尔的眼睛,当他们跟随火车时,以每秒50次的速度测量他瞳孔的直径。当孩子感到无聊——或者心理学家称之为“习惯”——他的注意力水平就会稳步下降。但每当引入一些新奇的东西时,它就会有一点进步。火车可能是绿色的,也可能是蓝色的。有时不可能的事情发生了——火车一种颜色进入隧道,另一种颜色出来。


D Variations of experiments like this one, examining infant attention, have been a standard tool of developmental psychology ever since the Swiss pioneer of the field, Jean Piaget ,started experimenting on his children in the 1920s.Piaget's work led him to conclude that infants younger than 9 months have no innate knowledge of how the world works or any sense of "object permanence"(that people and things still exist even when they're not seen). Instead, babies must gradually construct this knowledge from experience. Piaget's "constructivist" theories were massively influential on postwar educators and psychologist, but over the past 20 years or so they have been largely set aside by a new generation of "nativist" psychologists and cognitive scientists whose more sophisticated experiments led them to theorise that infants arrive already equipped with some knowledge of the physical world and even rudimentary programming for math and language. Baby lab director Sylvain Sirois has been putting these smart-baby theories through a rigorous set of tests. His conclusions so far tend to be more Piagetian:“Babies" he says, "know nothing."

自从20世纪20年代,这个领域的瑞士先驱让皮亚杰(Jean Piaget)开始在他的孩子身上做实验以来,类似于这种测试婴儿注意力的各种实验,一直是发展心理学的标准工具。皮亚杰的研究使他得出结论:9个月以下的婴儿对世界的运行方式没有先天的认识,也没有任何“物体的持久性”(即人和事物即使在看不见的情况下也仍然存在)。相反,婴儿必须从经验中逐渐构建这种知识。皮亚杰的“建构主义”理论在战后大量有影响力的教育家和心理学家,但是在过去的20年左右他们很大程度上留出了新一代的“本土主义”心理学家和认知科学家的更复杂的实验使他们建立理论,婴儿已经到达配备一些知识的物理世界,甚至基本的编程数学和语言。婴儿实验室主任西尔万·西罗伊斯(Sylvain Sirois)一直在对这些智能婴儿理论进行一系列严格的测试。到目前为止,他的结论更倾向于皮亚杰式的:“婴儿”他说,“什么都不知道。”


E What Sirois and his postgraduate assistant Lain Jackson are challenging is the interpretation of a variety of classic experiments begun in the mid-1980s in which babies were shown physical events that appeared to violate such basic concepts as gravity, solidity and contiguity. In one such experiment, by University of Illinois psychologist Renee Baillargeon, a hinged wooden panel appeared to pass right through a box. Baillargeon and M.I.T's Elizabeth Spelke found that babies as young as 31/2 months would reliably look longer at the impossible event than at the normal one. Their conclusion: babies have enough built-in knowledge to recognize that some-thing is wrong.

Sirois和他的研究生助理Lain Jackson所面临的挑战是,如何解释上世纪80年代中期开始的一系列经典实验。伊利诺伊大学(University of Illinois)心理学家蕾妮·贝拉金(Renee Baillargeon)就做过这样一个实验:一块铰链木板似乎正好穿过一个盒子。Baillargeon教授和M.I.T的伊丽莎白·斯皮尔克发现,仅31个半月大的婴儿对不可能发生的事情的注视时间肯定比正常情况下要长。他们的结论是:婴儿有足够的内在知识来认识到某些事情是错误的。


F Sirois does not take issue with the way these experiments were conducted. "The methods are correct and replicable," he says, "it's the interpretation that's the problem." In a critical review to be published in the forthcoming issue of the European Journal of Developmental Psychology, he and Jackson pour cold water over recent experiments that claim to have observed innate or precocious social cognition skills in infants. His own experiments indicate that a baby's fascination with physically impossible events merely reflects a response to stimuli that are novel. Data from the eye tracker and the measurement of the pupils(which widen in response to arousal or interest show that impossible events involving familiar objects are no more interesting than possible events involving novel objects. In other words, when Daniel had seen the red train come out of the tunnel green a few times, he gets as bored as when it stays the same color. The mistake of previous research, says Sirois, has been to leap to the conclusion that infants can understand the concept of impossibility from the mere fact that they are able to perceive some novelty in it. ”The real explanation is boring," he says.

Sirois并不反对这些实验的进行方式。“这些方法是正确的,是可以复制的,”他说,“问题在于解释。”在即将出版的《欧洲发展心理学杂志》(European Journal of development Psychology)上发表的一篇评论文章中,他和杰克逊对最近声称观察到婴儿先天或早熟的社会认知技能的实验泼了冷水。他自己的实验表明,婴儿对物理上不可能的事情的迷恋仅仅反映了他们对新奇刺激的反应。来自眼动仪和瞳孔测量的数据显示,涉及熟悉物体的不可能事件并不比涉及新奇物体的可能事件更有趣。换句话说,当丹尼尔几次看到红色的火车从隧道里出来,绿色的,他感到无聊,就像它保持相同的颜色一样。Sirois说,以前的研究的错误在于得出结论,婴儿能够理解不可能的概念,仅仅是因为他们能够感知其中的一些新奇之处。“真正的解释很无聊,”他说。


G So how do babies bridge the gap between knowing squat and drawing triangles-a task Daniel's sister Lois,21/2, is happily tackling as she waits for her brother? "Babies have to learn everything, but as Piaget was saying, they start with a few primitive reflexes that get things going," said Sirois. For example, hardwired in the brain is an instinct that draws a baby's eyes to a human face. From brain imaging studies we also know that the brain has some sort of visual buffer that continues to represent objects after they have been removed-a lingering perception rather than conceptual understanding. So when babies encounter novel or unexpected events, Sirois explains, "there's a mismatch between the buffer and the information they're getting at that moment. And what you do when you've got a mismatch is you try to clear the buffer. And that takes attention." So learning, says Sirois, is essentially the laborious business of resolving mismatches. "The thing is, you can do a lot of it with this wet sticky thing called a brain. It's a fantastic, statistical-learning machine". Daniel, exams ended, picks up a plastic tiger and, chewing thoughtfully upon its heat, smiles as if to agree.

那么,宝宝们是如何在知道蹲姿和画三角形之间架起一座桥梁的呢?丹尼尔21岁半的妹妹露易丝在等哥哥的时候正在开心地做这个任务。Sirois说:“婴儿必须学习所有的东西,但就像皮亚杰所说的,他们从一些原始的反射开始,这些反射使事情得以进行。”例如,大脑中固有的一种本能会将婴儿的眼睛吸引到人脸上。从脑成像研究中我们还知道,大脑有某种视觉缓冲,在物体被移除后,这种缓冲还能继续代表物体——一种挥之不去的感知,而不是概念上的理解。因此,当婴儿遇到新奇或意想不到的事件时,Sirois解释说,“在缓冲和他们当时获得的信息之间存在不匹配。当出现不匹配时,你要做的是清除缓冲区。这需要引起注意。因此,Sirois说,学习本质上是解决不匹配的艰苦工作。“问题是,你可以用这个叫做大脑的湿黏东西做很多事情。这是一个奇妙的、统计式的学习机器。考试结束了,丹尼尔拿起一只塑料老虎,若有所思地咀嚼着它的热量,微笑着表示同意。


{版本2}


Passage One


新旧题:


题材:植物


题目:Forgotten Forests


文章大意:山火在保护longleaf森林中所扮演的重要角色。Today, fire is used as a significant management tool for protecting both longleaf and its wildlife.


题型:笔记填空题5;流程图填空题4;判断题T/F/NG 4

答案回忆:

Note填空1-5

Native Americans and settlers

有一题答案是native Americans

Flow-chart 填空6-9

Red Woodpecker 和calcium

题干大意为calcium最先被储存在什么里。有fire后,被转移到了soil中,又到了longleaf树上,被woodpecker吸收,最后到了eggs里。

判断题T/F/NG 10-13

某一题的题干大意为sparse distribution有助于biodiversity多样化。题目集中出现在原文靠前的段落(大概是第二段)


(答案仅供参考)


参考文章:C10T4P1: Wildfires in California


Passage Two


新旧题:旧题


题材:科技


题目:Mechanical computing


文章大意:The need of XXX computing bagan after the death of Isaac Newton in 1727.


题型:段落信息匹配题4;表格填空题6;简答题3

答案回忆:

段落信息匹配IC题14-17

题干:a mention of setback and disputes

选择了第二页比较长的那一段。

题干:a mention of professions who need XXX computing.

选择A段(提到了具体的职业)

题干:主角转向了新的领域

选择靠后的一段(讲了主角促进交通安全,给火车上装黑匣子,给潜水艇装某种装备)

表格填空题18-23

a comparison between two machines invented by a scientist 对比一个科学家发明的两个机器

简答题24-26(字数要求为;NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS)

24.待补充

25.待补充

26.black box recorder


(答案仅供参考)


参考文章:待补充


Passage Three


新旧题:旧题


题材:心理学


题目:What do babies know?


文章大意:Are babies born with the ability to know the world or is it something that they learn? 婴儿们了解世界的能力是与生俱来的还是后天习得的?

第一段:一个9个月婴儿Daniel被独自留在电脑前,通过看妈妈的反应,自己能给出一些情绪上的反馈。妈妈皱眉头,他也会担心,妈妈宽慰他,他就放松了。

后边再次提到这个孩子,让这个孩子看屏幕上的火车,火车从隧道一边进去,从另一边出来。通过改变火车的颜色,利用屏幕后的眼动实验装置,检测这个婴儿的注意力。如果火车进隧道前是一个颜色,从隧道出来是另一个颜色,这个婴儿的注意力就会被吸引。

引用PLAGET的观点:婴儿出生时并没有了解世界的能力,是通过后天的experience而习得了解世界的能力。

后来一些cognitive的学者们提出了相反的观点。

但是SS和Piaget观点是一样的,婴儿没有认知能力。

原文通过列出Piaget和SS的观点,同时也说SS倾向于Piagetion。在文章第二页左上角有一句话,是SS的原话:“Babies knows nothing."


题型:判断题Y/N/NG 6;句首句尾配对5;单选题3


答案回忆:

判断题Y/N/NG 27-32

整体难度不高

有一道比较靠后的判断题,题干说SS和Piaget的观点一样,答案为YES

句首句尾配对33-37

整体难度较高

两道题目中有人名Piaget

中间一题没有人名

后两个有人名SS

单选题38-40

整体难度不高

38.题出自第三段

39.题出自第四段

40.题出自第六段


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