2、欧洲国家开始把政府重心放在促进生产上。政府开始设定机构由政府官员来推广文化的传播、设立医疗设施、在军队实行有等级的军官制度、投资促进农业技术的革新。通过这些方式，欧洲一些国家有了更多收入，扩充了国库。比如，法国，虽然它的国王还是强调broad power,喜欢通过战争来扩大自己的影响力，但是Spain 和 Holland 也开始效仿它的一些做法，积极发展贸易。(此处考了一个句子简化题，并列复合句，前句后句互相解释，注意重点信息和主干)。
3、虽然国家机构有所发展，但是并没有像中国那样强有力的政府机构。欧洲国家开始意识到国家意识。但是国家意识的崛起意味着国家间boundary以及其他文化区别的确定。比如法国开始purify自己的语言，强调国家间文化的不同。于此同时中东和亚洲民族正在embrace different cultures。
1、科学家根据动物的温度把它们划分为poikilotherm和homoiotherm.其中poikilotherm是身体会不受周围环境影响，自身温度独立于周围环境的动物;homoiotherm是身体温度和周围环境温度保持一致，没有独立调节自身温度的动物。动物调节温度的能力取决于周围环境的传导性，比如在水里，水的heat capacity就比较高导热性很好，所以水里的动物如果想要和周围的温度不一样就很难，一般水里的动物温度和周围环境不会超过2度；但是空气的heat capacity 和导热性就很差，所以陆地的动物就可以和外部温度有一个比较大的差别。
2、但是科学家随后发现这种分类有很大缺陷。比如被划分为poikilotherm的动物其实自己没有调节自身温度的能力，虽然和周围温度相差很大，但是自身温度全年相差不大;但是被划分为homoiotherm的动物，虽然和周围温度相差不大，但是自身温度全年变化比较大。所以科学家用了不同的方式来划分动物：endotherm 和ectotherm. Endotherm指的是热力来源于自身内部的动物;ectotherm指的是没有自身热力来源系统，主要依靠外部环境来获取热量的动物。
真题来源：2015-2-1CN The Chaco Phenomenon
•P1: Between about 900 to 1150 AD, a mysterious Stone Age culture arose, flourished, and then vanished in the semi-desert region of the Southwestern United States. Named the Chaco culture after the canyon in which the principal ruins are found, nearly everything about this ancient society is shrouded in mystery. A truly remarkable transformation in settlement patterns occurred in the San Juan basin in northwestern New Mexico, with small household farmsteads giving way to aggregated communities centered on communal masonry buildings that are now called "great houses.” These multi-level buildings of up to 800 rooms are scattered over thousands of square miles of the Four Corners area of the Southwest. The entire episode of great house construction in Chaco, the Bonito phase (A.D. 900-”40). was signifying an pronounced period of immense cooperative effort. Pueblo Chetro Ketl's outer wall alone is calculated to be composed of 30 million stones which were brought to the canyon from distances between 80 and 150 kilometers away. Many of the stones had to be shaped before being positioned and built into a huge project. But by 1140 AD, the massive construction ceased abruptly, followed by a rapid decline in use of the great houses find apparent abandonment of the canyon in the thirteenth century.
•P2: For more than a century archaeologists have struggled to understand the circumstances surrounding the rise and collapse of Chacoan society一dubbed the Chaco Phenomenon. Specifically, research has focused on determing why such an apparently inhospitable place as Chaco, which today is extremely arid and has very short growing seasons, should have been favored for the concentration of labor that must have been required for such massive construction projects over brief periods of time. Until the 1970s, scholars and the public alike had a long-shared notion that Chaco had been a forested oasis that attracted farmers who Initially nourished but eventually fell victim to their own success and exuberance, as they employed unsustainable land-use practices build their Impressive communities. Yet there is no substantial evidence, archaeological, otherwise, to support such contention.
•P3: However, recent geological field studies in Chaco have produced some table-turning evidence that may require a significant reassessment of the assumption that the canyon was not a favorable agricultural setting. It appears that during the extraordinary construction boom in the first half of the eleventh century, a devastating flood occurred, resulting in extreme difficulty irrigating the area. A large natural lake, near the biggest concentration of great houses, may have existed at the western end of Chaco and might have suspended which would then have flowed into the canyon. The presence of an abundance of water and, equally important, a source of sediment that replenished agricultural fields, presumably made the canyon an extremely attractive place for newly arriving people from the northern San Juan River basin. In fact, during the 1980s, this reconstruction was largely dismissed in response to evidence that there were only scattered trees along cliffs and escarpments above the canyon rather than woodlands in the first place, and that canyon soil was highly sensitive to increase in aridity and temperature and thus unsuitable for farming, regardless of the amount of trees. As long-standing scientific consensus was undergoing this transformation, the position of the canyon within a regional network of dispersed agricultural communities called up more academic attention.
P4: The adoption of a regional perspective in explaining the Chaco Phenomenon was based m part on the discovery of formal trails. A combination of remote sensing techniques and ground verification defined a prehistoric road system which extended outward from Chaco Canyon into the surrounding San Juan Basin, later referred to as Chaco -outliers." These trails are densest around the concentration of great houses in the center, and the canyon itself is roughly at the center of the basin. Consequently, Chaco Canyon was intimately related to other settlements in a single cultural web flung across 30,000 square miles and which reached into Colorado and Utah, all tied together by a network of ancient roads. The current consensus view is that religion provided the fundamental explanation for this centrifugal pattern.
P5: After close study of great kivas (multipurpose rooms used for religious, political, and social functions), archeologists , tend to depict Chaco as a location of high devotional expression and the pilgrimage center of a sacred landscape. The kiva structure itself, of whatever size, occupies a special and sacred place in Pueblo architecture. Excavation of some of these vaults suggests that they were once associated with ceremonies. Archaeological record presented some ritual artifacts, including caches of turquoise beads and pendants, unusual ceramic vessels and wooden objects, several rooms with multiple human burials, and especially the large number of kivas found in great houses. Most of these indicators occur only at Pueblo Bonito, but archaeologists generally assume that all the great houses had a similar ritual function. Some scholars have even argued that the great houses were temples instead of residences.
1. The word "signifying” in the passage is closest in meaning to文中“预示”一词的意思最接近于
2. The word “ceased” in the passage is closest in meaning to文中“停止”一词的意思最接近于
A. stow down
D. changed in style
3. According to paragraph 1, all of the following provide evidence that the Bonito phase was a time of immense cooperative effort EXCEPT根据第1段，下列各点都提供了证据，证明博尼托阶段是一个合作努力巨大的时期，除了
A. the large amounts of material needed
B. the size of the Pueblo Bonito complex
C. the unusual materials used in construction
D. the distance the materials needed to be transported
4. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential Information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.下面哪个句子最能表达文章中突出显示的句子的基本信息?错误的选择以重要的方式改变了意义，或者遗漏了重要的信息。
A. Researchers have tried to establish why an area as dry Chaco was the site of such large construction efforts.
B. Researchers have tried to establish whether the concentration of massive construction projects in a brief period of time made Chaco the dry area that it is today.
C. Researchers have established that Chaco's brief growing season required a concentration of labor to produce large quantities of rood in a short period of time
D. Researchers have established that the hot, dry climate of Chaco forced workers to complete construction on large buildings in short periods of time.
5. According to paragraph 2, before 1970, scholars believed that Chacoan society collapsed because根据第2段，1970年以前，学者们认为查科社会的崩溃是因为
A. Chaco never had the forests that were needed for the development of a stable agricultural economy
B. farmers used up the natural resources in Chaco that had originally allowed the society to succeed.
C. Chaco suffered a long-term drought that prevented farmers from growing enough food
D. laborers left Chaco to find other work after they finished building the great houses there.
6. It can be Inferred from paragraph 2 that the pre-1970s theory about the Chaco Phenomenon
A. was based on the widespread farm and tool remains found by archaeologists on the site.
B. was largely reinforced by findings in the 1980s
C. was not supported by substantial evidence.
D. was so strong that it went unchallenged for many decades.
真题来源：2015-8-22CN The Upper Paleolithic Revolution
P1: The Old Stone Age is the earliest period of human development and the longest phase of mankind’s history. It was not till around 30 thousand years ago (or 30 “kya") that the archaeological record reveals the emergence of technical and social advances, which comprised new technologies, hunting techniques, human burials, and an artistic tradition of astonishing competency. This dramatic change was known as the Upper Paleolithic Revolution. It had been traditionally argued that the Upper Paleolithic Revolution was an archaeological phenomenon exclusive to Eurasia. The absence of equivalent evidence in other regions suggested that a fundamental change had occurred in human intellectual development around 40 kya in Europe. However, the recent discovery in the Blombos Cave in South Africa of a block of decorated ochre and then sets of shell beads, dated to around 77 kya, opened up the debate. This supports other evidence of more versatile stone implements and bone tools found in Africa from the same period. Now the Upper Paleolithic Revolution is regarded as the most noticeable evidence for the evolution of modern human behavior.
•P2: Two further questions follow. First, what was happening to the human cognitive process during the 40,000 years or so from innovative usage of stone in the Blombos Cave to the flourishing of human creativity in Europe? Second, during the Pleistocene a series of momentous climatic events occurred—was climate change then a component? The question of whether the sudden transition seen in Europe was built on earlier developments in Africa has been addressed at length by anthropologists Sally McBrearty and Alison Brooks. They argue that the whole issue of the Upper Paleolithic Revolution stems from a profound Eurocentric bias and a failure to appreciate the depth and breadth of the African archaeological record.
接下来还有两个问题。首先，在大约4万年的时间里，从布隆伯斯洞穴中石头的创新使用到欧洲人类创造力的繁荣，人类的认知过程发生了什么变化?其次，在更新世期间发生了一系列重大的气候事件——气候变化是其中的一个组成部分吗?人类学家萨利·麦克布里亚蒂(Sally McBrearty)和艾莉森·布鲁克斯(Alison Brooks)对欧洲出现的这种突然转变是否建立在非洲早期发展的基础上进行了详细的探讨。他们认为，整个旧石器时代晚期革命的问题源于一种深刻的以欧洲为中心的偏见，以及未能认识到非洲考古记录的深度和广度。
In fact, many South African archaeological sites show that the revolution occurred in Africa during the Middle Paleolithic—tens of thousands of years before they appeared in Europe. This is supported by evidence of using new stone tools like the blade and microlithic technology. Replication has shown that blades from the time required a high level of skill to make due to their shape, indicating a higher level of hominid complexity. At the same time, exploitation of aquatic resources began to prosper.
•P3: Contrasted with this view of a spontaneous leap in cognition among ancient 一 humans, some authors like Alison S. Brooks, primarily working in African archaeology, point to the gradual accumulation of modern behaviors, starting well before the 50,000 year benchmark of the Upper Paleolithic Revolution models. The extraordinary range of rock art in Australia adds great weight to the idea that artistic creativity was part and parcel of the intellectual capacity of modem humans that migrated out of Africa around 70 kya For the time being, the emergence of Modern humans in sub-Saharan Africa, socio-economic dynamism that caused their expansion through the Nile Valley into the Near East, and then a migration along the southern route of Asia as far as Australia is the most plausible scenario, though it still leaves much to be desired from future archaeological research.
•P4: The question of the sudden emergence of creative activity that appears to constitute the Upper Paleolithic Revolution falls to the ground. The obvious explanation is that the gap between African developments and the subsequent better-known European events is a matter of the limitations of the archaeological record. This does not altogether cover the question of why there was the sudden flowering of creativity at the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe.
It may be that earlier creative efforts have either been lost in or have yet to emerge from the mists of time. Recent finds of decorative pierced shells dating from 43 kya or even earlier in caves in parts of western Asia near Europe may be examples of a process extending the evidence back in time. The changes in human behavior have also been attributed to the changes in climate during the period, which encompasses a number of global temperature drops. This meant a worsening of the already bitter climate which hence forced the ancestors of today's Europeans to move into a largely unpopulated region, their sudden presence in the archaeological record appearing revolutionary.
1. Why does the author mention a block of decorated ochre and sets of shell beads?
A. To help make the point that archaeologists regard artistic creations as the highest kind of human achievement
B. To illustrate how the discovery of certain objects makes the discovery of certain other objects more likely
C. To give some of the evidence that has changed archaeologists' thinking about human intellectual development
D. To help explain why archaeologists have been slow to recognize the importance of certain evidence available to them
2. How far back in time do the origins of the more versatile stone implements and bone tools found in Africa go? 在非洲发现的用途更广的石器和骨工具的起源可以追溯到多久以前
A. To around 40 kya
B. To around 77 kya
C. To the time of the Upper Paleolithic Revolution
D. To a time before modern "human” behavior had begun to evolve
3. The word "equivalent" in the passage is closest in meaning to
D. widely debated
4. According to paragraph 2, what do archaeologists want to know about the climate?
A. Whether it was a reason that humans lived in caves
B. Whether it was stable throughout that period
C. Whether it changed in similar ways in Africa and Europe
D. Whether it was a factor in how the human cognitive process developed
5. According to paragraph 2, anthropologists McBrearty and Brooks argue that archaeologists' traditional understanding of the Upper Paleolithic Revolution was flawed because
A. they underestimated available African archaeological evidence.
B. the archaeological evidence available to them contained errors.
C. they could not distinguish artistic creations from objects meant for practical use.
D. they based their judgments on the limited archaeological record available at that time.
6. Anthropologists McBrearty and Brooks consider such components of the Upper Paleolithic Revolution as blade and microlithic technology to have人类学家麦克布里亚蒂和布鲁克斯认为，旧石器时代晚期革命的组成部分包括刀锋和微岩屑技术
A. first emerged in the Middle Paleolithic Period, in Africa rather than in Europe
B. emerged in Europe independently in many different places at different times
C. first emerged in Europe, then to have been further developed in Africa
D. been part of a similarly sudden, but earlier, cultural revolution in Africa