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2018年9月2日托福考试阅读预测机经(版本合集!)

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距离2018年9月2日的托福考试已经不到一周的时间了,不知各位童鞋是否已经准备好了。临考前来看一下各大网站有关本场考试的预测机经,缓解一下紧张的心情吧!下面是本场考试阅读预测机经。

距离2018年9月2日的托福考试已经不到一周的时间了,不知各位童鞋是否已经准备好了。临考前来看一下各大网站有关本场考试的预测机经,缓解一下紧张的心情吧!下面是本场考试阅读预测机经。


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Biological diversity has become widely recognized as a critical conservation issue only in the past two decades. The rapid destruction of the tropical rain forests, which are the ecosystems with the highest known species diversity on Earth, has awakened people to the importance and fragility of biological diversity. The high rate of species extinctions in these environments is jolting, but it is important to recognize the significance of biological diversity in all ecosystems. As the human population continues to expand, it will negatively affect one after another of Earth's ecosystems. In terrestrial ecosystems and in fringe marine ecosystems (such as wetlands), the most common problem is habitat destruction. In most situations, the result is irreversible. Now humans are beginning to destroy marine ecosystems through other types of activities, such as disposal and run off of poisonous waste; in less than two centuries, by significantly reducing the variety of species on Earth, they have unraveled cons of evolution and irrevocably redirected its course.

只有在过去20年里,生物多样性才被广泛认为是一个关键的保护问题。热带雨林是地球上已知物种多样性最高的生态系统,它的迅速破坏使人们认识到生物多样性的重要性和脆弱性。在这些环境中,物种的高灭绝率令人震惊,但重要的是要认识到生物多样性在所有生态系统中的重要性。随着人口的不断增长,它将对地球的生态系统产生一个又一个的负面影响。在陆地生态系统和边缘海洋生态系统(如湿地)中,最常见的问题是栖息地的破坏。在大多数情况下,结果是不可逆转的。现在,人类开始通过其他类型的活动来破坏海洋生态系统,比如处理和清除有毒废物;在不到两个世纪的时间里,通过大幅减少地球上物种的多样性,它们解开了进化的弊端,并不可逆转地重新调整了方向。


Certainly, there have been periods in Earth's history when mass extinctions have occurred. The extinction of the dinosaurs was caused by some physical event, either climatic or cosmic. There have also been less dramatic extinctions, as when natural competition between species reached an extreme conclusion. Only .01 percent of the species that have lived on Earth have survived to the present, and it was largely chance that determined which species survived and which died out.

当然,在地球历史上也有过物种大灭绝发生的时期。恐龙的灭绝是由一些物理事件引起的,无论是气候事件还是宇宙事件。物种灭绝也没有那么剧烈,比如物种间的自然竞争得出了极端的结论。在地球上生存过的物种中,只有0.01%存活到现在,而决定哪些物种存活下来,哪些灭绝的几率很大。


However, nothing has ever equaled the magnitude and speed with which the human species is altering the physical and chemical world and demolishing the environment. In fact, there is wide agreement that it is the rate of change humans are inflicting, even more than the changes themselves, that will lead to biological devastation. Life on Earth has continually been in flux as slow physical and chemical changes have occurred on Earth, but life needs time to adapt — time for migration and genetic adaptation within existing species and time for the proliferation of new genetic material and new species that may be able to survive in new environments.

然而,人类物种正在改变物理和化学世界并破坏环境,其规模和速度是前所未有的。事实上,人们普遍认为,导致生物破坏的是人类造成的变化的速度,甚至超过了人类自身造成的变化。地球上的生命一直在通量缓慢的物理和化学变化发生在地球上,但生活需要时间来适应,迁移时间和遗传适应现有的种类和时间内扩散的新的遗传物质和新物种,也许能够在新的环境中生存下来。


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1. What does the passage mainly discuss?

(A) The causes of the extinction of the dinosaur

(B) The variety of species found in tropical rain forests.

(C) The impact of human activities on Earth's ecosystems

(D) The time required for species to adapt to new environments


2. The word critical in line 1 is closest in meaning to

(A) negative

(B) essential

(C) interesting

(D) complicated


3. The word jolting in line 5 is closest in meaning to

(A) predicted

(B) shocking

(C) unknown

(D) illuminating


4. The author mentions the reduction of the variety of species on Earth in line 12 to suggest that

(A) new habitats can be created for species

(B) humans are often made ill by polluted water

(C) some species have been made extinct by human activity

(D) an understanding of evolution can prevent certain species from disappearing


5. The author mentions all of the following as examples of the effect of humans oil the world's ecosystems EXCEPT

(A) destruction of the tropical rain forests

(B) habitat destruction in wetlands

(C) damage to marine ecosystems

(D) the introduction of new varieties of plant species


6. The author mentions the extinction of the dinosaurs in the second paragraph to emphasize that

(A) the cause of the dinosaurs extinction is unknown

(B) Earth's climate has changed significantly since the dinosaurs' extinction,

(C) not all mass extinctions have been caused by human activity

(D) actions by humans could not stop the irreversible process of a species' extinction


7. The word magnitude in line 20 is closest in meaning to

(A) concern

(B) determination

(C) carelessness

(D) extent


8. According to the passage , natural evolutionary change is different from changes caused by humans in that changes caused by humans

(A) are occurring at a much faster rate

(B) are less devastating to most species

(C) affect fewer ecosystems

(D) are reversible


9. With which of the following statements would the author be most likely to agree?

(A) Human influence on ecosystems should not be a factor in determining public policy.

(B) The extinction of a few species is an acceptable consequence of human progress.

(C) Technology will provide solutions to problems caused by the destruction of ecosystems.

(D) Humans should be more conscious of the influence they have on ecosystems


{版本2}


托福阅读题目:How did earth’s ocean emerge?


内容回忆:

第1段讲到如果要了解地球上海洋的起源,需要先了解太阳系是如何形成的。太阳系是dust爆炸之后形成了一个个clump, 比较大的clump 因为重力会吸引那些小一些的行星及其它物质。而且重量越大,速度越快。 然后这些较大的clump 就会成为embryo planets.地球就是在这种条件下行成的。一开始假设地球是cold低温的,所以urnanium等放射性物质挥发的时候,就会让水形成并从vocalno中喷发而出,于是形成了海洋。

第2段讲到该理论有些问题。问题之一是就是目前的发现表明没有那么多的火山喷发以形成今天这么广阔的海洋。第二就是该理论是以一个错误的观点为基础的。因为根据太阳系的行成原因,地球不可能以那么温和缓慢的方式行程,在比较高速的情况下,那么地球一开始的温度就是高的,而不是cold.


托福阅读词汇题:

1.in retrospect=think in reconsideration

2.velocity=speed

3.intense= extreme

4.scenario= a version of events


托福阅读学科分类:生物


托福阅读题目:The origin of flight of birds


内容回忆:

第1段说明说明大家比较达成共识的是会A 这种化石应该可以提示鸟类的飞行能力是如何起源的,但是具体有两种理论可以参考。

第2段讲到了理论之一是tree-down theory。既起源于树上。reptile 身上比较长的鳞片会帮助从树上俯冲向下gliding;越来越长了之后就发展成了羽毛,并且有助于隔热和培养出endothermy ,A鸟脚上的grasping feature 就能体现该特征。第3段介绍了ground-up 理论,既一开始是在地上的。先有高体温帮助power the muscle , 然后发展出羽毛可以帮助在抓猎物的时候保持平衡,并帮助隔热。


托福阅读词汇题:

1. done many times

2. elaborate=complicated

3. retention = keeping


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